Anachronism in the film “Braveheart”

Posted by: | Posted on: July 7, 2015
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Anachronism in the film “Braveheart”

An anachronism is a sequential irregularity in some course of action, particularly a juxtaposition of person(s), occasions, articles, or traditions from diverse times of time. Regularly the thing lost in time is an article, but can also be considered as a verbal interpretation, innovation, philosophical thought, musical style, material, custom, or whatever else connected with a specific period. Thus, it is wrong to place it outside its legitimate fleeting space. The time has an incredible criticalness in life as well as in writing. It is because of it there is slip-up in the representation of time; it implies the essayist or the chief has committed an error which the crowd and the readers would not effortlessly process. It is because it would just be a further assault on their “willing suspension of doubt.” truth be told, it is an accidental blunder shows up because of author’s carelessness. Now and again chronological error serves to make a specific imaginative effect to draw the readers’ consideration. Despite the fact that chronological error comes into perspective as imperfection, its use may create an impact and give authors an approach to reinforce and development their thoughts. If the variables like absence of fitting request and verifiable incoherence are set aside for a minute, the readers can see every bit of its illustrations in artistic works (Giacomo & Giacomo, 2008).

The vast majority are mindful of the three goofs in Braveheart. The main goof is the Battle of Stirling Bridge missing a critical key milestone that gave the fight its name: an extension. The second lesser known goof is the presence of the Scotsmen wearing kilts. The kilt was an image of faction distinguishing proof framed in the 14-1500s, a tad bit later than when Braveheart occurred. The third goof is demonstrating William Wallace utilizing a schiltron barrier against the rangers. He did not. Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn employed that specific mounted force executioner strategy.  The 1995 motion picture, BraveHeart, is a true to life showstopper (Giacomo & Giacomo, 2008). A numerous Oscar champ, an amazing realistic depiction of Scottish flexibility contender William Wallace and his most prominent achievements. It’s additionally a greatly truly incorrect film. However, that does not degrade it as a realistic accomplishment. Star and executive Mel Gibson himself takes note of that the film is a “chronicled dream” and shouldn’t be taken as the precise depiction of Wallace’s life.

Here is a rundown of the most imperative recorded errors that individuals ought to be mindful of before viewing the motion picture. This is planned to improve one’s happiness regarding the film and not castigate it and its creators. Disclaimer 2015 (because of the colossal measures of activity to this post and the strange length of the remarks area): I am not a history specialist and have never asserted to be. All the certainties on this page are from my individual examination done out of curiosity using an assortment of sources. Don’t hesitate to like and offer the website in the event that you discovered it a fascinating read, yet don’t get irritated on the off chance that I don’t answer to your remarks since I’ve gotten truly tired of perusing the remarks area. Additionally, I’ve evacuated the entire “fag = cigarette” pleasantry from the site since it appeared to fly over an excess of people groups’ heads.

Slip #1: William Wallace’s origins

Despite the fact that Gibson can be pardoned on a ton of mistakes identifying with Wallace’s initial life on the premise that his pre-military life and profession is not decently reported, numerous students of history may take offense to how Wee William is portrayed in the film. The motion picture gives off the picture of William being destined to destitution and carrying on with the basic existence of a rancher before being taken under the consideration of his uncle Argyle, when his dad passes on battling the English. In fact, most history specialists accept Wallace was destined to the Scottish nobility and was at that points a knight when of the Battle of Stirling (and was not knighted a short time later like the motion picture proposes). Be that as it may once more, no genuine authentic writings say somehow, so Gibson could be generally as all right history specialists the extent that we know. As an included side-note: Wallace’s wife was called Marian, not Murron. Gibson changed the name in light of the fact that he needed to keep away from the gathering of people mistaking her for Maid Marian from Robin Hood.

Error #2: Wardrobe incongruities

There are two noteworthy closet related mistakes in the film. Most likely the most talked about and extraordinary is the depiction of Scots wearing kilts in the thirteenth century. In fact, kilts did not turn into a prominent manifestation of men’s wear until well into the seventeenth century, which implies that the film’s depiction can be considered terribly mistaken. Nonetheless, a genuine realistic purpose behind it exists, which I’ll become acquainted with a bit. An alternate incorrectness is the way that the English officers are indicated wearing regalia while such was not actually the custom in Wallace’s age (Robertson, 1980). Military clothing regulation didn’t turn into a standard in England until the seventeenth century. In the time of Wallace, troopers would wear essentially anything they could get their hands on (as most were so poor they didn’t have two coins to rub together). Highborn knights did wear suits of shield head-to-toe, yet the main badge they would wear was every now and again their family emblem which guaranteed that on the off chance that they were caught alive; they would even now have a shot of returning home once their family paid their payment. What can be seen both on the Scottish and English side of this closet breakdown are a “uni-formalization” of both sides. This is finished the gathering of people’s accommodation so that amid the huge fight scenes we can tell who, without needing to listen to who’s withering with a RP and who with a Highlands stress.

Error #3: Primae Noctis may have not so much existed

The principal night or Primae Noctis is obviously considered by most students of history as a somewhat of a recorded urban myth. There’s a lot of compositions that insinuate it, however almost no insightful proof that it was ever really utilized by any rulers anyplace. Positively, amid Wallace’s chance, Primae Noctis was never utilized by Edward Longshanks (that really was his moniker) to piss off the Scots.  In any case, BraveHeart is neither the first nor the last motion picture to have adjusted Primae Noctis as a story-gadget and we can doubtlessly see why it is utilized as a part of the film. It positively seems like the kind of defile stuff that the arrogant of the thirteenth century may have done yet the terrible truth may be that its negligible fiction.

Error #4: The Scots didn’t paint their faces for the fight to come

In any event they no more did when of Wallace. What Gibson was clearly insinuating is the Scottish Picts’ convention of painting their faces blue to drive away those pansies, the Romans, from their properties. Obviously, Emperor Adrian would have nothing of it and assembled a divider to keep those malice buggers from sacking whatever is left of Britain while the shoe society still managed the scene. The blue face-paint is so famous; however, you couldn’t envision BraveHeart without it. Nowadays obviously the custom is to paint the banner of Scotland (a white X crosswise over with blue sides) for donning occasions (During, 1999).

Error#5: The Battle of Stirling Bridge

Presumably the most glaring lapse in the whole film is the unlucky deficiency of the famous “Scaffold” at the Battle of Stirling. This slip Gibson concedes was carried out to make the fight all the more artistically engaging. In the real Battle of Stirling, the English needed to cross an extension to assault the Scottish on the other side. The Stirling Bridge was severely assembled and little, just permitting three cavalrymen to cross at once. Wallace’s troops accomplished triumph by holding up for the English to cross and slaughtering them instantly as they made it to the next side. The Scots attained to a merciless triumph against a far bigger power and the fight was a defining moment in the Scottish War for autonomy (During, 1999). In the motion picture, the Scots assemble vast pikes to counter the overwhelming cavalry while their own rangers ride behind the English and takes out their bowmen. The film’s reason of the overwhelming rangers as relentless juggernauts on the war zone is grounded in genuine verifiable reality, so while the fight may not be exact even in the loosest definition, it is in any event verifiably conceivable.

Error#6:  Isabelle of France never met William Wallace

            Isabelle of France was Prince Edward’s life partner, however at the time of William Wallace’s military adventures, she was a negligible four years of age and thusly couldn’t have physically met or been in contact with Wallace (despite the fact that Wallace had flown out to France amid the war to request support against the English). This clearly implies that all that she does in the film help Wallace by educating him of the English Army’s developments, the issue and issuing him agony desensitizing drug before his execution did not happen (Poshek & Desser, 2000).

Error #7: Phillip was never defenestrated

Ruler Edward’s gay darling in the film, Phillip, is in all likelihood planned to be Edward II’s genuine military guide Sir Phillip de Mowbray. For this situation, Phillip was never tossed out of any mansion windows yet indeed lived well past Edward I’s passing. The film’s delineation of Prince Edward II as a cross-sexual may not be totally wrong, however it uncovers taking note of that he did have upwards of five kids; Edward was nonetheless, an insufficient King which is the reason he was dismissed toward the end of his rule. It’s likewise vague if Edward really was in a gay person association with Phillip de Mowbray, however the fact of the matter is, as dreaded and insane as his dad may have been, he never tossed any gays out of manor windows.

Error #8: The Battle of Falkirk

Presently, clearly the skirmish of Falkirk didn’t go down a remarkable way its delineated in the film. Edward I was present and he was known for utilizing Irish and Welsh recruits; however at no time did the Scots and Irish stop amidst the fight to shake hands and make decent. The most ignored part of the Falkirk fight is that while it was the first enormous military blow for Wallace and the Scots (as portrayed in the film) the real explanation behind the Scot’s annihilation is never specified in the film. Edward wasn’t exactly as wanton as in the film, advising the bowmen to flame aimlessly into the mêlée of Scots and English. The Welsh bowmen won the fight for the English utilizing the most recent and most innovative weaponry. They found themselves able to discharge from separations far more noteworthy than the Scottish bowmen, some of whom really utilized slingshots as opposed to bows (Sandys, 2003).

Error #9: Robert the Bruce never sold out Wallace

Robert the seventeenth Bruce was one of the numerous individuals amid the Scottish War of Independence who was attempting to claim the throne of Scotland for himself. While amid the beginning of Wallace’s military fight, he did freely abandon him, he covertly and later openly upheld him and his war exertion. Along these lines, his assumed depiction at the Battle of Falkirk is simply some more realistic favor instead of genuine chronicled actuality. Be that as it may, somehow or another Robert the Bruce is precisely portrayed inside the film. Wallace did bolster Robert the Bruce for the throne and Bruce’s dad (Robert the sixteenth Bruce) did experience the ill effects of disease, which is the reason he couldn’t make a case for the throne (however he didn’t designer Wallace’s catch as delineated in the film). The most outstanding certainty of all is that the name “Fearless Heart” really alludes to Robert the Bruce and not William Wallace. After his demise, Robert’s heart was actually conveyed into fight, conceiving the moniker.




Chalmers, J., Edwards, H. & Hargreaves, M. (2012). Infrared and Raman spectroscopy in             forensic science. Chichester, West Sussex, UK Hoboken: Wiley.

During, S. (1999). The cultural studies reader. London New York: Routledge.

Giacomo, R. & Giacomo, J. (2008). The history teacher’s movie guide choosing and using the        right films for your classroom. San José, Calif: Magnifico Publications.

Poshek. & Desser, D. (2000). The Cinema of Hong Kong : history, arts, identity. Cambridge, UK New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Robertson, D. (1980). Essays in medieval culture. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University     Press.

Sandys, J. (2003). Movie mistakes. London: Virgin.



Posted by: | Posted on: July 7, 2015
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James Graham had once said “Orwell’s ‘1984’ was a conviction that whether right or wrong, Marxism is a quantum leap away from the concept of tyranny. By contrast, the comments by Huxley’s ‘Brave New World’ state that any utilitarian systems in the future could be ingratiating and subservient.” Marxism is basically the view of political, economic and social theories that are presented by Karl Marx that include the belief held between the various social classes as an important history force which suggests that society should have no social classes. George Orwell’s 1984 in terms of freedom, governance and the law is ineffective from a Marxist view because there’s essentially no hope for a real equitable society.

In his argument, Bob Dylan stated that no individual is free or has the levels of freedom they so desire even the birds that will remain chained to the sky. Connecting this statement to Orwell’s work, it is clear that he makes a depiction of the totalitarian dystopian world where he states that there lack freedom among citizens and citizens are constantly brainwashed by the systems in society. Orwell further points out that without any sense of individuals having fairness, people just work for the sake of the party and resemble the gear wheels that are in a machine. So that this is achievable, the politicians in 1984 are clearly suppressive of the individual’s thinking, and they also eliminate their freedom through creating propaganda, incessant surveillances and creating strict laws.

The false perceptions, myths and lies control the way the citizens think. It is clear that the party relies on propaganda as a weapon to control the citizens. However, this weapon of propaganda is used to increase the morale of the citizens and makes them think that what the party is telling them to do is right. Orwell states that war is peace, freedom, on the other hand, is slavery and ignorance are strengths among the people (Orwell, 4).  This is the slogan that is used by the party so as to convince the citizen that what they want is already given to them by the party.

The use of the law is another powerful tool that the politicians rely on so as to limit the freedoms of the citizens. Some of these are restrictions on dates, love, parties and curfews in Oceania. Despite the fact that they are implemented strictly, they cannot be termed as laws in theory as they are not written in any system. Orwell states that it is a fact that Syme grasped, even for a period of three seconds, the perception of his, Winston’s secretive opinions would be an instant betrayal to the police (Orwell, 30). There lacks a law that defines thought crime, but Winston can be arrested when he commits thought crime even through a facial twitch. The implications could result to the party changing the laws to ensure that they fit what the party finds appealing.


The facts that have been presented by Orwell in his book 1984 show that there is indeed a conflicting thought between the ideas in Orwell’s book and Marxism. It is clear that the citizens have been deprived their freedom, they have also been victims of poor governance and their laws have been manipulated to fit to those of the bourgeoisie and the law makers. This therefore means that the book is ineffective in supporting the ideas presented by Marxism that there should be no social segregation among citizens.





Orwell, G. (1983). 1984: A novel. New York: Plume.

Airport Operations

Posted by: | Posted on: July 7, 2015
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Airport Operations

Student’s name

Course name and number

Instructor’s name

Date submitted









Among the many challenges that are experienced by the airport terminal operators, one of the greatest ones is accommodation of passengers. Managing the airport terminal operations requires proper accommodation of the desired and necessary needs of the broad spectrum of travelers. Nearly each of the passengers that travel around the globe, who’s annual total is more than a billion passengers, have unique needs and unique itinerary that have to be accommodated. This study is only focused on the passengers on the commercial air carriers (Young & Wells, 2011, p. 254-256). The passengers can be categorized in several ways as explained below.

Firstly is the segment of the itinerary that the passenger is while at the airport. There are three primary itinerary segments namely, departing – passengers entering the terminal through the access interface from the ground access system. Secondly, arriving – deplaned an aircraft and entering the terminal from the flight interface, intending to leave the airport terminal for their final destinations. Finally, transferring – entering the terminal from the flight interface intending to board other flights in a short while. Secondly, there are domestic and international passengers. Domestic passengers are US citizens and non-citizens travelling within the confinements of USA. International passengers travel to or from the US (Young & Wells, 2011, p. 254-256).

Thirdly, is the purpose of the trip, either on business or for leisure. Additionally, there is the size of the group of passengers. They are categorized a travelling individually or in small groups, or in large groups of more than 20 passengers of the same group. In addition, the type of baggage the passengers carry. They are said to be carrying no baggage, carry-on baggage, baggage to be checked in and oddly-shaped or oversized baggage. That helps in the planning and design of the baggage handling facilities. Finally, the type of ticket the passenger purchases, either paper or electronic tickets (Young & Wells, 2011, p. 254-256).


Young, S., & Wells, A. (2011). Airport planning and management (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hilll.


Finance Homework Help

Posted by: | Posted on: November 23, 2014
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Focus Set 3 – Fundamental Counting Principle

Provide answers to # 1 – 10 below.
Show how you set up your problem and then do the math.
1. If there are four roads from town A to town B and three roads from town B to town C, how many routes are there from town A to town C which go through town B?

Number of routes from A to C
= Number of routes from A to B x Number of routes from B to C
= 4 x 3
= 12

2. How many different 4-letter radio station call codes are possible if each code must begin with K or W and no letter can be repeated? Examples: WABC, KABC, or WABK

Number of call codes possible
= Product of number of choice of each digit
= 2 x 25 x 24 x 23
= 27600

3. A firm wants to assign its employees ID numbers that have say x digits each. If a firm has 800 employees, what is the smallest number of digits (that is, the smallest x) that the firm can use for each ID number? Assume that repetition of digits is permitted.
(Hint: There is no formula for this – you just have to reason it out, but you must be enough ID’s to go around!)

For x number of digits, number of distinct ID = 10x
For x =2, number of distinct ID = 100 < 800 For x =3, number of distinct ID = 1000 > 800
Therefore the smallest x is 3

4. In how many ways can 10 questions on a True-False test be answered?

Number of ways
= 210
= 1024

5. In how many ways can a president and vice president be selected from a club consisting of 12 people?
(Assume that these 2 positions cannot be occupied by the same person.)

Number of ways
= Product of number of choice for each position
= 12 x 11
= 132

6. In how many ways can 5 people be seated in a row?

Number of ways for 5 people to sit in a row
= 5!
= 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1
= 120

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7. How many ways can 6 people be seated in a row, if Ruth must be seated in the first chair?

Since Ruth must sit in first chair, there are on one choice for first chair
Number of ways for remaining 5 people to sit in a row
= 5!
= 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1
= 120
Total number of ways
= 1 x 120
= 120

8. How many distinct ordered arrangements can be made with the letters of the word TENNESSEE?

There are 4 repeated E, two repeated N, two repeated S, and totally 9 characters
Number of ways
= 3780

9. You are trying to schedule classes for next semester and wish to enroll in Math, English, Fine Arts, and History. You have found 4 Math sections, 5 English sections, 6 Fine Arts sections, and 2 History sections that do not have conflicts.
How many different possible schedules can you develop using these options?

There are totally 4 + 5 + 6 + 2 = 17 sections
Number of ways
= 85765680

10. It is lunchtime and you wish to build a pizza with 1 choice of crust, 1 meat, 1 vegetable.
You have the following choices: 2 types of crust, 4 types of meats, and 7 types of vegetables
How many different ways can you build your pizza?

Number of ways to build pizza
= Number of choice of crust x number of choice of meat x number of choice of vegetable
= 2 x 4 x 7
= 56

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Posted by: | Posted on: November 23, 2014
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Sustainability is the only way that continuous development and exploitation of resources can be guaranteed. For this reason, there is need for the relevant authorities to ensure that all the players adopt sustainable operations in order to secure the future. This research paper examines the issue of sustainability in Brazil. The paper looks at the issues surrounding sustainability. These issues include profitability, environmental protection as well as lack of proper legal mechanism to control the environmental degradation. Finally, he paper gives recommendations of what can be done to promote sustainable operations by companies.

Sustainability Report


The urge to meet the current needs is pushing countries and industries to exploit the available resources in ways that are not sustainable. Industries dealing in extraction as well as manufacturing are known to engage in practices that are not sustainable. These practices compromise the availability of these resources to the future generations. The same practices as well may impact negatively on the environment leading to adverse consequences whose effects can be felt by many generations to come. Countries that enjoy vast natural resources are at great risk of engaging in unsustainable practices due to the fact that the vastness of the resources may mislead people to think that they cannot be exhausted. Brazil is of such countries that are endowed with vast natural resources. As a result, industries that deal with exploitation of these resources have for a long time not been very keen in ensuring that their operations are sustainable. The result is environmental degradation that has threatened the well being of the environment.

Brazil is among the few countries in the world that have vast resources. Starting with land, Brazil as a country is very large. It is the largest country in South America both in terms of land area as well as population. Second, Brazil has the largest share of the Amazon rain forest. For many years, Brazil has been rated as the country with the highest rate of deforestation in the world. The effects of deforestation are beginning to be felt in some areas (Caviglia, 2009). Areas that have never experienced flooding are now coping with this problem because there are no trees to control the rate of infiltration. The result is that there is a lot of surface runoff which is the main cause of flooding. Apart from causing flooding, deforestation has many other environmental impacts such as accelerating global warming.

The booming Brazilian economy has made the country to be more ambitious in its economic growth. For example, in 2012, Brazil was working towards overtaking UK in terms of GDP. Although this was possible, it was a very ambitious move given the fact that UK is a strong economy that has been developed over many years. It was therefore a hard task for a relatively young economy such as Brazil to compete with UK. The overambitious development plans have come at a cost to the environment. Industries have tried to make the most out of the environment while at the same time minimizing their cost of production. Although this has come with many economic benefits such as increased employment and better standards of living, the environment has been affected negatively. The increased production means that there are a lot of waste products being generated by these industries. Some of these industries are not able to deal with the increased wastes from these industries and the effect is poor disposal of waste products. Pollution is therefore a big problem in Brazil where land as well as water bodies have been affected. This affects the lives of all the organisms that live on land as well as those found in the water bodies. The polluted water is also a health hazard to the users as their health can be affected by drinking the polluted water.

Sustainability Issues in Brazil

There are a number of issued that are of a major concern when it comes to the sustainability in Brazil. These issues are interrelated and there is a direct relationship between then such that when one is affected it also affects the other. The following are some of the sustainability issues experienced in Brazil.
The main goal of any business enterprise is to make as much profit as possible while at the same time reducing the cost of production to as low as possible. This approach to business affects the ability of a company to invest in activities that do not have an immediate benefit to the business. For this reason, activities that are aimed at conserving the environment are neglected as companies view them as unnecessary costs that can be avoided and which the company can do without. Furthermore, the ever increasing competition in many industries is forcing market players to look for ways of producing their products cost effectively Cavalcanti, 2000). The reasoning behind this is that when a company invests in other activities, it will either increase its product prices or lower its profit margin. The most natural thing for companies to do is to increase the prices. However, this move lenders its products to be uncompetitive in the market. There are few investors who will choose an alternative that will make its products to be uncompetitive. The alternative that many opt for is not to invest in activities that either makes their products uncompetitive or that lower their profit margins. As a result, the issue of environmental management and sustainable development is ignored.

Those industries that are known to be more profitable attract more investors. Such industries include extraction industry. The reason why these industries are more profitable is because they require less investment in terms of raw materials. The only cost involve is capital investment and human resource. Unfortunately, these industries are the ones that greatly contribute to environmental degradation. One of the greatest natural resource that Brazil has is the rain forest. The rainforest in Brazil is the largest in the world. Many companies as well as private individuals have been exploiting this resource for a long time. The level of exploitation has been so high that for more than ten years, Brazil has been ranked as the country with the highest rate of deforestation. Many investors are attracted to the business of exploiting this forest because of the low investment cost and high rate of returns as compared to many industries. Logging and lumbering is a lucrative business in Brazil and this attracts many investors.
Environmental Protection

The question of environmental protection is the main concern when it comes to sustainability. Many issues pertaining to lack of sustainability result due to the unwillingness of the companies to invest part of their earnings to the management of the environment. Most of the natural resources that are exploited are exhaustible and their continuous use means that in future, there will be little or no resource to exploit. There is therefore need for sustainable exploitation of these resources. Apart from compromising the availability of these resources to the future generations, the operations of these companies are also at risk because once these resources gets depleted, these industries will be forced to close down as they will not have any resources to exploit.

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Companies that deal with exploitation of natural resources such as forests need to adopt sustainable practices to ensure that the future generation enjoys this resource. By adopting sustainable practices, these companies will as well be securing their future operations in that they will be ensuring that there will be resources available for them in many years to come. This can only be possible if companies are actively involved in enhancing sustainable exploitation of resources (Cavalcanti, 2000). In the last few years, some companies in Brazil have joined hands to address the issue of sustainable development. This group of companies aims at exploring ways through which their operations depends and also impacts on the environment. The group is made up of eight companies which have accepted to align their operations so that they are consistent with the environmental sustainability.

Walmart is one of the companies in this group. The main concern of Walmart is the increasing trend of ranchers to clear the rain forest in order to pave way for ranches. It is estimated that more than 70 percent of all land that is cleared is used for ranching. The beef production line of this company has developed a plan to discourage ranchers from clearing the forest for ranching. Under this plan, the company anticipates that by 2015, it will not by beef from ranches that sits on the cleared rain forest. This move will discourage the ranchers from clearing the forest for keeping their animals.

Another Brazilian company that is actively involved in ensuring sustainable development is Andre Maggie Group. This is a company that deals with production of agricultural products especially soy. The operations of this company require a lot of wood energy. For a long time, this company depended on wood fuel from the rain forest (Petarnella, 2011). In this way, the company was directly contributing to the destruction of the forest. It was after the realization that its activities of using wood fuel from the forest would in future be detrimental to its activities. Destroying forests can change the micro-climate of the affected region leading to reduced rainfall. Reduced rainfall will consequently affect the growing of soy and the overall production and profitability will decrease. To counter this problem, the company started a project of producing its own wood fuel in a sustainable way.

Lack of Regulatory Legal Structures

The problem of unsustainable development has been fuelled by the lack of a legal framework that regulates the operations of industries. The absence of laws makes the company to engage in activities that compromises the well being of the environment (Otsuki, 2013). In countries that have managed to address the problem of unsustainable development, strict laws have been formulated and those who flout these laws are severely punished. These laws are based on the realization that it is the government that usually carries out remedial measures once the environment has been destroyed. For example, in many countries where deforestation is a major problem, laws have been formulated to ensure that those who cut trees plant others to replace the ones that have been felled. Those players who fail to follow these laws are punished severely by heavy fines being imposed on them or their operating licenses being withdrawn. This ensures sustainability and environmental protection.


The lure of making more profits has blinded companies from seeing the impacts that their operations have on the environment. Investors are not willing to invest in any activity that compromises on its profitability. In Brazil, companies are exploiting the vast resources without much care of the future generations. This has led to the destruction of rain forest through unsustainable felling of trees. When trees are felled in great numbers, the environment is affected negatively in that the micro-climate of the area may be affected leading to change in the weather patterns. This can be a threat especially to agriculture since the change results in reduced rainfall. Pollution is as well a threat to human and animal life in that harmful chemicals are introduced in the environment and these chemicals can pose a health danger once they are ingested in the body. It is apparent that these companies cannot be able to adopt sustainable practices due to the costs involved. This therefore calls for the government to put in place laws that will regulate the operations of all the companies whose operations either directly or indirectly impacts on the environment.


To overcome the problem of environmental degradation and promote sustainable development, a number of measures can be taken to control the operations of all the companies that are involved in the exploitation of natural resources. The government is the agency that should formulate and ensure that the laws are followed by all the players. The first law should aim at compelling companies to take responsibility of their actions. If the company impacts negatively on the environment, it should be compelled to carry out remedial measures so as to protect the environment. The second law should aim at ensuring that all the operations of the company are sustainable. For example, a law can be formulated to ensure that all the companies that are involved in tree harvesting engage in afforestation activities. Once the trees are planted, it will be possible for continuous exploitation since such trees will be harvested in the future.