July, 2015

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Posted by: | Posted on: July 7, 2015

Anachronism in the film “Braveheart”


Anachronism in the film “Braveheart”

An anachronism is a sequential irregularity in some course of action, particularly a juxtaposition of person(s), occasions, articles, or traditions from diverse times of time. Regularly the thing lost in time is an article, but can also be considered as a verbal interpretation, innovation, philosophical thought, musical style, material, custom, or whatever else connected with a specific period. Thus, it is wrong to place it outside its legitimate fleeting space. The time has an incredible criticalness in life as well as in writing. It is because of it there is slip-up in the representation of time; it implies the essayist or the chief has committed an error which the crowd and the readers would not effortlessly process. It is because it would just be a further assault on their “willing suspension of doubt.” truth be told, it is an accidental blunder shows up because of author’s carelessness. Now and again chronological error serves to make a specific imaginative effect to draw the readers’ consideration. Despite the fact that chronological error comes into perspective as imperfection, its use may create an impact and give authors an approach to reinforce and development their thoughts. If the variables like absence of fitting request and verifiable incoherence are set aside for a minute, the readers can see every bit of its illustrations in artistic works (Giacomo & Giacomo, 2008).

The vast majority are mindful of the three goofs in Braveheart. The main goof is the Battle of Stirling Bridge missing a critical key milestone that gave the fight its name: an extension. The second lesser known goof is the presence of the Scotsmen wearing kilts. The kilt was an image of faction distinguishing proof framed in the 14-1500s, a tad bit later than when Braveheart occurred. The third goof is demonstrating William Wallace utilizing a schiltron barrier against the rangers. He did not. Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn employed that specific mounted force executioner strategy.  The 1995 motion picture, BraveHeart, is a true to life showstopper (Giacomo & Giacomo, 2008). A numerous Oscar champ, an amazing realistic depiction of Scottish flexibility contender William Wallace and his most prominent achievements. It’s additionally a greatly truly incorrect film. However, that does not degrade it as a realistic accomplishment. Star and executive Mel Gibson himself takes note of that the film is a “chronicled dream” and shouldn’t be taken as the precise depiction of Wallace’s life.

Here is a rundown of the most imperative recorded errors that individuals ought to be mindful of before viewing the motion picture. This is planned to improve one’s happiness regarding the film and not castigate it and its creators. Disclaimer 2015 (because of the colossal measures of activity to this post and the strange length of the remarks area): I am not a history specialist and have never asserted to be. All the certainties on this page are from my individual examination done out of curiosity using an assortment of sources. Don’t hesitate to like and offer the website in the event that you discovered it a fascinating read, yet don’t get irritated on the off chance that I don’t answer to your remarks since I’ve gotten truly tired of perusing the remarks area. Additionally, I’ve evacuated the entire “fag = cigarette” pleasantry from the site since it appeared to fly over an excess of people groups’ heads.

Slip #1: William Wallace’s origins

Despite the fact that Gibson can be pardoned on a ton of mistakes identifying with Wallace’s initial life on the premise that his pre-military life and profession is not decently reported, numerous students of history may take offense to how Wee William is portrayed in the film. The motion picture gives off the picture of William being destined to destitution and carrying on with the basic existence of a rancher before being taken under the consideration of his uncle Argyle, when his dad passes on battling the English. In fact, most history specialists accept Wallace was destined to the Scottish nobility and was at that points a knight when of the Battle of Stirling (and was not knighted a short time later like the motion picture proposes). Be that as it may once more, no genuine authentic writings say somehow, so Gibson could be generally as all right history specialists the extent that we know. As an included side-note: Wallace’s wife was called Marian, not Murron. Gibson changed the name in light of the fact that he needed to keep away from the gathering of people mistaking her for Maid Marian from Robin Hood.

Error #2: Wardrobe incongruities

There are two noteworthy closet related mistakes in the film. Most likely the most talked about and extraordinary is the depiction of Scots wearing kilts in the thirteenth century. In fact, kilts did not turn into a prominent manifestation of men’s wear until well into the seventeenth century, which implies that the film’s depiction can be considered terribly mistaken. Nonetheless, a genuine realistic purpose behind it exists, which I’ll become acquainted with a bit. An alternate incorrectness is the way that the English officers are indicated wearing regalia while such was not actually the custom in Wallace’s age (Robertson, 1980). Military clothing regulation didn’t turn into a standard in England until the seventeenth century. In the time of Wallace, troopers would wear essentially anything they could get their hands on (as most were so poor they didn’t have two coins to rub together). Highborn knights did wear suits of shield head-to-toe, yet the main badge they would wear was every now and again their family emblem which guaranteed that on the off chance that they were caught alive; they would even now have a shot of returning home once their family paid their payment. What can be seen both on the Scottish and English side of this closet breakdown are a “uni-formalization” of both sides. This is finished the gathering of people’s accommodation so that amid the huge fight scenes we can tell who, without needing to listen to who’s withering with a RP and who with a Highlands stress.

Error #3: Primae Noctis may have not so much existed

The principal night or Primae Noctis is obviously considered by most students of history as a somewhat of a recorded urban myth. There’s a lot of compositions that insinuate it, however almost no insightful proof that it was ever really utilized by any rulers anyplace. Positively, amid Wallace’s chance, Primae Noctis was never utilized by Edward Longshanks (that really was his moniker) to piss off the Scots.  In any case, BraveHeart is neither the first nor the last motion picture to have adjusted Primae Noctis as a story-gadget and we can doubtlessly see why it is utilized as a part of the film. It positively seems like the kind of defile stuff that the arrogant of the thirteenth century may have done yet the terrible truth may be that its negligible fiction.

Error #4: The Scots didn’t paint their faces for the fight to come

In any event they no more did when of Wallace. What Gibson was clearly insinuating is the Scottish Picts’ convention of painting their faces blue to drive away those pansies, the Romans, from their properties. Obviously, Emperor Adrian would have nothing of it and assembled a divider to keep those malice buggers from sacking whatever is left of Britain while the shoe society still managed the scene. The blue face-paint is so famous; however, you couldn’t envision BraveHeart without it. Nowadays obviously the custom is to paint the banner of Scotland (a white X crosswise over with blue sides) for donning occasions (During, 1999).

Error#5: The Battle of Stirling Bridge

Presumably the most glaring lapse in the whole film is the unlucky deficiency of the famous “Scaffold” at the Battle of Stirling. This slip Gibson concedes was carried out to make the fight all the more artistically engaging. In the real Battle of Stirling, the English needed to cross an extension to assault the Scottish on the other side. The Stirling Bridge was severely assembled and little, just permitting three cavalrymen to cross at once. Wallace’s troops accomplished triumph by holding up for the English to cross and slaughtering them instantly as they made it to the next side. The Scots attained to a merciless triumph against a far bigger power and the fight was a defining moment in the Scottish War for autonomy (During, 1999). In the motion picture, the Scots assemble vast pikes to counter the overwhelming cavalry while their own rangers ride behind the English and takes out their bowmen. The film’s reason of the overwhelming rangers as relentless juggernauts on the war zone is grounded in genuine verifiable reality, so while the fight may not be exact even in the loosest definition, it is in any event verifiably conceivable.

Error#6:  Isabelle of France never met William Wallace

            Isabelle of France was Prince Edward’s life partner, however at the time of William Wallace’s military adventures, she was a negligible four years of age and thusly couldn’t have physically met or been in contact with Wallace (despite the fact that Wallace had flown out to France amid the war to request support against the English). This clearly implies that all that she does in the film help Wallace by educating him of the English Army’s developments, the issue and issuing him agony desensitizing drug before his execution did not happen (Poshek & Desser, 2000).

Error #7: Phillip was never defenestrated

Ruler Edward’s gay darling in the film, Phillip, is in all likelihood planned to be Edward II’s genuine military guide Sir Phillip de Mowbray. For this situation, Phillip was never tossed out of any mansion windows yet indeed lived well past Edward I’s passing. The film’s delineation of Prince Edward II as a cross-sexual may not be totally wrong, however it uncovers taking note of that he did have upwards of five kids; Edward was nonetheless, an insufficient King which is the reason he was dismissed toward the end of his rule. It’s likewise vague if Edward really was in a gay person association with Phillip de Mowbray, however the fact of the matter is, as dreaded and insane as his dad may have been, he never tossed any gays out of manor windows.

Error #8: The Battle of Falkirk

Presently, clearly the skirmish of Falkirk didn’t go down a remarkable way its delineated in the film. Edward I was present and he was known for utilizing Irish and Welsh recruits; however at no time did the Scots and Irish stop amidst the fight to shake hands and make decent. The most ignored part of the Falkirk fight is that while it was the first enormous military blow for Wallace and the Scots (as portrayed in the film) the real explanation behind the Scot’s annihilation is never specified in the film. Edward wasn’t exactly as wanton as in the film, advising the bowmen to flame aimlessly into the mêlée of Scots and English. The Welsh bowmen won the fight for the English utilizing the most recent and most innovative weaponry. They found themselves able to discharge from separations far more noteworthy than the Scottish bowmen, some of whom really utilized slingshots as opposed to bows (Sandys, 2003).

Error #9: Robert the Bruce never sold out Wallace

Robert the seventeenth Bruce was one of the numerous individuals amid the Scottish War of Independence who was attempting to claim the throne of Scotland for himself. While amid the beginning of Wallace’s military fight, he did freely abandon him, he covertly and later openly upheld him and his war exertion. Along these lines, his assumed depiction at the Battle of Falkirk is simply some more realistic favor instead of genuine chronicled actuality. Be that as it may, somehow or another Robert the Bruce is precisely portrayed inside the film. Wallace did bolster Robert the Bruce for the throne and Bruce’s dad (Robert the sixteenth Bruce) did experience the ill effects of disease, which is the reason he couldn’t make a case for the throne (however he didn’t designer Wallace’s catch as delineated in the film). The most outstanding certainty of all is that the name “Fearless Heart” really alludes to Robert the Bruce and not William Wallace. After his demise, Robert’s heart was actually conveyed into fight, conceiving the moniker.




Chalmers, J., Edwards, H. & Hargreaves, M. (2012). Infrared and Raman spectroscopy in             forensic science. Chichester, West Sussex, UK Hoboken: Wiley.

During, S. (1999). The cultural studies reader. London New York: Routledge.

Giacomo, R. & Giacomo, J. (2008). The history teacher’s movie guide choosing and using the        right films for your classroom. San José, Calif: Magnifico Publications.

Poshek. & Desser, D. (2000). The Cinema of Hong Kong : history, arts, identity. Cambridge, UK New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Robertson, D. (1980). Essays in medieval culture. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University     Press.

Sandys, J. (2003). Movie mistakes. London: Virgin.


Posted by: | Posted on: July 7, 2015


James Graham had once said “Orwell’s ‘1984’ was a conviction that whether right or wrong, Marxism is a quantum leap away from the concept of tyranny. By contrast, the comments by Huxley’s ‘Brave New World’ state that any utilitarian systems in the future could be ingratiating and subservient.” Marxism is basically the view of political, economic and social theories that are presented by Karl Marx that include the belief held between the various social classes as an important history force which suggests that society should have no social classes. George Orwell’s 1984 in terms of freedom, governance and the law is ineffective from a Marxist view because there’s essentially no hope for a real equitable society.

In his argument, Bob Dylan stated that no individual is free or has the levels of freedom they so desire even the birds that will remain chained to the sky. Connecting this statement to Orwell’s work, it is clear that he makes a depiction of the totalitarian dystopian world where he states that there lack freedom among citizens and citizens are constantly brainwashed by the systems in society. Orwell further points out that without any sense of individuals having fairness, people just work for the sake of the party and resemble the gear wheels that are in a machine. So that this is achievable, the politicians in 1984 are clearly suppressive of the individual’s thinking, and they also eliminate their freedom through creating propaganda, incessant surveillances and creating strict laws.

The false perceptions, myths and lies control the way the citizens think. It is clear that the party relies on propaganda as a weapon to control the citizens. However, this weapon of propaganda is used to increase the morale of the citizens and makes them think that what the party is telling them to do is right. Orwell states that war is peace, freedom, on the other hand, is slavery and ignorance are strengths among the people (Orwell, 4).  This is the slogan that is used by the party so as to convince the citizen that what they want is already given to them by the party.

The use of the law is another powerful tool that the politicians rely on so as to limit the freedoms of the citizens. Some of these are restrictions on dates, love, parties and curfews in Oceania. Despite the fact that they are implemented strictly, they cannot be termed as laws in theory as they are not written in any system. Orwell states that it is a fact that Syme grasped, even for a period of three seconds, the perception of his, Winston’s secretive opinions would be an instant betrayal to the police (Orwell, 30). There lacks a law that defines thought crime, but Winston can be arrested when he commits thought crime even through a facial twitch. The implications could result to the party changing the laws to ensure that they fit what the party finds appealing.


The facts that have been presented by Orwell in his book 1984 show that there is indeed a conflicting thought between the ideas in Orwell’s book and Marxism. It is clear that the citizens have been deprived their freedom, they have also been victims of poor governance and their laws have been manipulated to fit to those of the bourgeoisie and the law makers. This therefore means that the book is ineffective in supporting the ideas presented by Marxism that there should be no social segregation among citizens.





Orwell, G. (1983). 1984: A novel. New York: Plume.

Posted by: | Posted on: July 7, 2015

Airport Operations





Airport Operations

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Among the many challenges that are experienced by the airport terminal operators, one of the greatest ones is accommodation of passengers. Managing the airport terminal operations requires proper accommodation of the desired and necessary needs of the broad spectrum of travelers. Nearly each of the passengers that travel around the globe, who’s annual total is more than a billion passengers, have unique needs and unique itinerary that have to be accommodated. This study is only focused on the passengers on the commercial air carriers (Young & Wells, 2011, p. 254-256). The passengers can be categorized in several ways as explained below.

Firstly is the segment of the itinerary that the passenger is while at the airport. There are three primary itinerary segments namely, departing – passengers entering the terminal through the access interface from the ground access system. Secondly, arriving – deplaned an aircraft and entering the terminal from the flight interface, intending to leave the airport terminal for their final destinations. Finally, transferring – entering the terminal from the flight interface intending to board other flights in a short while. Secondly, there are domestic and international passengers. Domestic passengers are US citizens and non-citizens travelling within the confinements of USA. International passengers travel to or from the US (Young & Wells, 2011, p. 254-256).

Thirdly, is the purpose of the trip, either on business or for leisure. Additionally, there is the size of the group of passengers. They are categorized a travelling individually or in small groups, or in large groups of more than 20 passengers of the same group. In addition, the type of baggage the passengers carry. They are said to be carrying no baggage, carry-on baggage, baggage to be checked in and oddly-shaped or oversized baggage. That helps in the planning and design of the baggage handling facilities. Finally, the type of ticket the passenger purchases, either paper or electronic tickets (Young & Wells, 2011, p. 254-256).


Young, S., & Wells, A. (2011). Airport planning and management (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hilll.